Gibberagong Environmental Education Centre logo

Gibberagong Environmental Education Centre

Gibberagong Environmental Education Centre

Wonder, Engage, Inspire

Telephone02 9457 8245

The Earth’s Surface (formerly Beneath Our Feet)

Science and Technology: Earth and Space


The sandstone country of northern Sydney is millions of years old and over time has been gradually eroded to form the spectacular valleys and ridges we see today.

During the day, the students will observe this natural erosion, investigate erosion in built areas and examine the components of soil and how it is formed.

Inquiry questions

What are the characteristics of soil and how is it formed?

How have the features of the park changed over time?

How can we help protect the park?

Learning Activities

Creating soil

This hands-on activity explores features of leaves and how their decomposition is a key to the creation of soil. During this activity, students will also investigate features of soil and the cycling of materials in soil.

Bush walk

Students will learn about invertebrates in the environment and the interconnected nature of invertebrates, habitat and other animals. Significant plants, animals and examples of erosion of the local area will be identified along the walk.

Invertebrate activity

Students will work in groups to conduct an invertebrate survey in a bush habitat. If students are using cooperative learning teams the role for each member will be revised. Together the class will negotiate a code for caring for ethical and safe handling methods. Students will record the name and draw the observable features of the invertebrates they find. They will also collect a tally of the total number of that species found in their area. Students will use a simple dichotomous key to correctly identify the invertebrate species.

Erosion of earth’s layers

Using a birthday cake analogy, students will gain a clearer understanding of the different sandstone rock layers and propose erosional forces that transform these layers through an engaging activity that enables them to use the properties of the sandstone to colour in a diagram.

Cultural site visit

Students will hear of the interconnected nature of traditional Aboriginal people and the land during a visit to a cultural site. At an engraving site, the students will learn about the nature of the sandstone and how these sites are managed due to the impacts of weathering and erosion.

Excursion Locations

This program is offered at the following locations. Click on an image to find out more.

Sample Timetable

NOTE: Variations to timetable based on specific location, group size and weather

Time Classes A, B, C, D
10.00am Acknowledgement of Country, Welcome, Overview of the day
10.10am Morning Tea
10.30pm Bush walk  which includes soil activity, invertebrate activity, erosion of earth's layers and a cultural site visit
12.30pm Lunch 
1.00pm Bushwalk continues
2.00pm Conclusion and depart

Teacher Information

Download the program flyer

Excursion locations

Kalkari to Bobbin Head

West Head

Bus access map

Map for access to venue will be sent with the confirmation

Please ensure you print a copy and provide to the bus driver on the morning of the excursion.


2024 DoE $20 per student - GST free

2024 Non-gov school cost $25 per student - GST free, minimum charge $600 per class. 

NOTE:  National Parks entry is $1.10 per student in addition

Class numbers and size

Up to 4 classes 

Max. 30 students per class

Risk Assessments

Kalkari to Bobbin Head

West Head

Social Stories

Kalkari to Bobbin Head

West Head

Supporting Resources
Student activities
What to bring

Backpack, medication, low-waste food, water bottle, sunblock, raincoat, hat, sturdy shoes, mask.

Students wear sports uniform.

Adverse weather
On days where the weather is unsuitable (see risk assessment), a Gibberagong staff member will contact the organising teacher to discuss alternative arrangments.
Medical notifications
Notify Gibberagong EEC by completing and returning the medical form before the excursion. This form will be sent out upon confirmation of booking.

Syllabus outcomes and content

Science and technology K-6 Syllabus 


A student:

> Investigates regular changes caused by interactions between the Earth and the sun, and changes to the earth’s surface ST2-10ES-S


Earth and space


  • Investigate why the Earth’s surface changes over time as a result of natural processes and human activity (ACSSU075)
  • Identify that scientific knowledge helps people understand the effect of their actions (ACSHE051, ACSHE062)


Science and Technology K-6 Syllabus © NSW Education Standards Authority (NESA) for and on behalf of the Crown in right of the State of New South Wales, 2017